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Disputationes Metaphysicae XXIII and XXIV

I am beginning to revise my translations of DM XXIII and XXIV with an eye towards publication, so more polished versions should gradually show up here. I would, of course, be especially grateful for any comments/criticisms about these translations.

  • *XXIII.1 - Whether an end is a true real cause (html)
  • *XXIII.2 - What kinds of ends there are (html)
  • *XXIII.3 - What effects the final cause has
  • XXIII.4 - What the nature of causing or the causality of the final cause is or consists in
  • XXIII.5 - What the proximate nature of causing in the final end is
  • *XXIII.6 - What things can exercise final causality
  • XXIII.7 - Whether it is a necessary condition for the end to be cognized so that it can cause finally
  • XXIII.8 - Whether the end moves according to its own real being or according to being cognized
  • XXIII.9 - Whether causality of the end has a place in divine actions and effects
  • *XXIII.10 - Whether true final causality intercedes in the actions of natural and irrational agents
  • *XXIV - Concerning the ultimate final cause or the ultimate end (Whether it can be sufficiently shown by natural reason that some ultimate end is given and that a procession into infinity is not given in final causes; Whether an ultimate end per se and properly concurs with all proximate ends for causing finally and consequently whether all agents intend an ultimate end in all their actions). (html)